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8

Jazz Today, Jazz Tomorrow (1990 - 2020 +)

footnotes

7. all styles of jazz from Dixieland to contemporary are still being performed and recorded today; all style dates given are approximations of when each respective style came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development; of course, styles and dates overlap

8. sampling consists of digitally recording acoustic, synthesized, or previously recorded sounds for the purpose of electronically manipulating them (e.g., changing pitch, changing timbre, looping them, etc.); in acid jazz, entire musical phrases from old albums are often sampled then resynthesized as the basis for new recordings

9. looping is the continuous repetition of a musical phrase manipulated by electronic means; in acid jazz, the accompaniment portion of old records are often sampled then looped, providing the background for new recordings (over which are placed other synthesized sounds, raps, and jazz improvisations)

10. DIVA is an all-female big band

11. IHJ = selection is found on Willie Hill’s The Instrumental History of Jazz; JIA = selection is found on the Jazz in America website (www.jazzinamerica.org)

I. Jazz Today (1990-2020)


A. Basically Two Camps

   

Anything Goes vs. The Traditionalists 

      

1.

Anything Goes - no labels, no particular preconceived style, just music containing improvisation that could not have manifested without the jazz tradition. 

            

a.

elements of Swing, Hard Bop, Cool, Avant Garde, and Fusion 

            

b.

elements of classical music, especially 20th and 21st century techniques 

            

c.

elements of world music (all ethnicities, especially Latin, Eastern, and African) 

            

d.

elements of popular music, including rock, r&b, funk, and hip-hop 

      

2.

Mainstream Jazz (AKA straight ahead jazz) 

            

a.

jazz manifesting directly from the “jazz” tradition (i.e., a more narrowly defined version of jazz tradition, one that excludes Avant Garde, Fusion, and any jazz pioneered after 1963), most resembling the Hard Bop sensibility 

            

b.

seeks to identify the jazz masters of the past and explore their genius, focusing on Blues, Swing, and Bebop 

            

c.

the Retro movement has been under the tutelage of trumpet player Wynton Marsalis 


B. Offshoots

      

1.

M-Base 

            

a.

macro-based jazz, i.e., broad based 

            

b.

harmonic and structural elements of the late 1960s avant garde combined with rhythms and grooves of funk and hip hop; “free funk” 

      

2.

Acid Jazz 

            

a.

based on jazz-funk recordings of the 1960s and early ‘70s, classic R&B, and hip hop 

            

b.

much of acid jazz depends upon electronically excerpting portions of old records using sampling8 and looping9 techniques 

            

c.

often performed and recorded with Rap vocals 

            

d.

often features long improvisations over sampled vamps 

            

e.

live performances often feature musicians (usually horn players) along with DJs 


C. Women in Jazz

      

1.

in the past, women in jazz have made their greatest impact in the vocal jazz arena (e.g., Betty Carter, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Carmen McRae, Sarah Vaughan) 

      

2.

instrumental jazz, from its earliest roots, has been primarily male dominated 

      

3.

past female contributors to the instrumental jazz tradition include such pioneers as Lillian Hardin Armstrong (piano), Dorothy Donegan, (piano), Marian McPartland (piano), Shirley Scott (organ), and Mary Lou Williams (piano) 

      

4.

today, more and more women are becoming involved in jazz as students and educators as well as highly regarded performers and composer/arrangers 

      

5.

eminent female recording artists on today’s jazz scene include such distinguished musicians as: 

            

a.

Melissa Aldana, tenor saxophone 

            

b.

Carla Bley, piano 

            

c.

Jane Ira Bloom, soprano saxophone 

            

d.

Jane Bunnett, soprano saxophone & flute 

            

e.

Terri Lyne Carrington, drums 

            

f.

Regina Carter, violin 

            

g.

Anat Cohen, clarinet 

            

h.

Claire Daly, baritone saxophone 

            

i.

Sheila E, percussion 

            

j.

Satoko Fujii, piano 

            

k.

Tia Fuller, alto saxophone 

            

l.

Mary Halvorson, guitar 

            

m.

Ingrid Jensen, trumpet 

            

n.

Myra Melford, piano 

            

o.

Allison Miller, drums 

            

p.

Nicole Mitchell, flute 

            

q.

Linda May Han Oh, bass 

            

r.

Jenny Scheinman, violin 

            

s.

Maria Schneider, arranger 

            

t.

Esperanza Spalding, bass 


D. Listening Examples

   

"Dolphy’s Dance," Geri Allen (IHJ), and/or "Something’s Coming," DIVA10(JIA), and/or "PanaMonk," Danilo Perez (JIA)11 

Audio Snippets

speakerspacer PanaMonk - Danilo Perez


E. Play

   

selected favorite jazz recordings brought in by students 

Video Clips

videospacer Coleman Hawkins - Body & Soul
videospacer Kris Bowers – History of Jazz Piano
videospacer Margaret Whiting - I Got Lost in His Arms
videospacer Pat O’Malley with the Jack Hylton Orchestra - Body & Soul
videospacer Terri Lyne Carrington - I Got Lost in His Arms
videospacer Terri Lyne Carrington - Michelle
videospacer Terri Lyne Carrington - Trapped in the America Dream
videospacer The Beatles - Michelle
videospacer Tia Fuller/Terri Lyne Carrington - Body & Soul
the Herbie Hancock institute of jazz
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