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Cool, Hard Bop, and Modal Jazz


Modal Jazz


1. all styles of jazz from Dixieland to contemporary are still being performed and recorded today; all style dates given are approximations of when each respective style came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development; of course, styles and dates overlap

2. The term "Funky Jazz" in the 1950s should not be confused with "Funk," a style of popular music pioneered in the 1970s. Funky Jazz is characterized by its earthy, "low down," soulful, bluesy, and gospel flavored qualities, e.g., Moanin', Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers (IHJ). While Funk also combines elements of jazz, blues, and soul, it is characterized by syncopated rock rhythms and a heavy, repetitive bass line, e.g., Chameleon, Herbie Hancock (Web).

3. National Center for History in the Schools, UCLA

4. Music Educators National Association

5. Student handouts may be down loaded from the web site, printed, and photocopied.

6. Any material from the web site may be down loaded, printed, and made into a transparency as the instructor sees fit.

7. IHJ = selection is found on Willie Hill's The Instrumental History of Jazz; Web = selection is found on the Monk Institute Jazz in America National Curriculum web site (www.jazzinamerica.org)


  1. Cool: 1949-19551
  2. Hard Bop and Funky Jazz:2 1951-1958
  3. Modal Jazz: 1958-1967
  4. Important Figures
  5. Cultural Implications

National Standards for United States History (Grades 9-12)3

Historical Thinking
Students should be able to:
  1. draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources. (Historical Comprehension Standard 2i)
  2. compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions (Historical Analysis and Interpretation Standard 3a)
  3. consider multiple perspectives (Historical Analysis and Interpretation Standard 3b)
  4. hypothesize the influence of the past (Historical Analysis and Interpretation Standard 3j)
  5. obtain historical data (Historical Research Capabilities Standard 4b)
Historical Content
Students should:
  1. understand the extent and impact of economic changes in the postwar period (Postwar United States 1945 to Early 1970s Standard 1a), able to analyze the continued gap between poverty and the rising affluence of the middle class
  2. understand how the social changes of the postwar period affected various Americans (Postwar United States 1945 to Early 1970s Standard 1b), able to explain the expansion of suburbanization and analyze how the “crabgrass frontier” affected American society, and explore the influence of popular culture and analyze the role of the mass media in homogenizing American culture

National Standards for Arts Education (Music Grades 9-12)4

Content Standard #6 - Listening to, Analyzing, and Describing Music
  1. analyze aural examples of a varied repertoire of music, representing diverse genres and cultures, by describing the uses of elements of music and expressive devices
  2. demonstrate extensive knowledge of the technical vocabulary of music
  3. identify and explain compositional devices and techniques used to provide unity and variety and tension and release in a musical work and give examples of other works that make similar uses of these devices and techniques
  4. demonstrate the ability to perceive and remember music events by describing in detail significant events occurring in a given aural example
  5. compare ways in which musical materials are used in a given example relative to ways in which they are used in other works of the same genre or style
  6. analyze and describe uses of the elements of music in a given work that make it unique, interesting, and expressive
Content Standard #9 - Understanding Music in Relation to History and Culture
  1. classify by genre or style and by historical period or culture unfamiliar but representative aural examples of music and explain the reasoning behind their classifications
  2. identify sources of American music genres, trace the evolution of those genres, and cite well-known musicians associated with them
  3. identify various roles that musicians perform, cite representative individuals who have functioned in each role, and describe their activities and achievements
  4. identify and explain the stylistic features of a given musical work that serve to define its aesthetic tradition and its historical or cultural context.
  5. identify and describe music genres or styles that show the influence of two or more cultural traditions, identify the cultural source of each influence, and trace the historical conditions that produced the synthesis of influences

The student will
  1. gain a fundamental understanding of Cool Jazz
    1. reaction to bebop
    2. performance practices
  2. gain a fundamental understanding of Hard Bop and Funky Jazz
    1. reaction to cool
    2. performance practices
  3. gain a fundamental understanding of Modal Jazz
    1. reaction to hard bop and cool
    2. performance practices
  4. learn the basic definition of several terms associated with jazz
    1. nonet
    2. dynamics
    3. mode
    4. homophony
    5. polyphony
    6. contrafact
  5. listen to Cool, Hard Bop, Funky Jazz, and Modal Jazz recordings
  6. become acquainted with Miles Davis and Art Blakey
  7. participate in a class discussion regarding jazz's contribution to and reflection of American culture in the 1950s

  1. CD player
  2. chalkboard (with chalk and eraser)
  3. overhead projector (optional)
  4. computer logged onto www.jazzinamerica.org (optional)

  1. The Instrumental History of Jazz
    1. two CDs
    2. accompanying booklet
  2. Student Handouts (one per student)5
    1. chapter glossary
    2. one American History (AH) handout: The 1950s: A Decade of Change
    3. Cool Characteristics
    4. Hard Bop and Funky Jazz Characteristics
    5. Modal Jazz Characteristics
    6. time line (1950s)
    7. Jazz Biographies (JB) handout (Miles Davis and Art Blakley)
  3. Overhead projector transparencies6

The instructor will
  1. distribute student handouts
  2. have students read and discuss the student handout, The 1950s: A Decade of Change
  3. discuss Cool, Hard Bop and Funky Jazz, and Modal Jazz
  4. examine the biographical sketches of Miles Davis and Art Blakley
  5. play significant Cool recordings: Boplicity, Miles Davis (IHJ), and/or Bernie's Tune, Gerry Mulligan Quartet (IHJ), and/or Take Five, Dave Brubeck (Web)7
  6. play significant Hard Bop recordings: Nica's Dream, Horace Silver Quintet (IHJ), and/or Walkin', Miles Davis (Web),and/or St. Thomas, Sonny Rollins (Web), and/or Giant Steps, John Coltrane (Web)
  7. play significant Funky Jazz recordings: Moanin', Art Blakey & The Jazz Messengers (IHJ) and/or Song for My Father, Horace Silver (Web)
  8. play significant Modal Jazz recordings: Impressions, John Coltrane (IHJ), and/or All Blues, Miles Davis (Web), and/or Footprints, Miles Davis (Web)
  9. lead a class discussion regarding jazz's contribution to and reflection of American culture during the Cool, Hard Bop, and Modal Jazz Eras

Test Bank
  1. Multiple Choice
  2. Fill in the Blank
  3. True-False
  4. Matching
  5. Essay

the Herbie Hancock institute of jazz
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