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5

Bebop

II.

Bebop

footnotes

1. all styles of jazz from Dixieland to contemporary are still being performed and recorded today; all style dates given are approximations of when each respective style came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development; of course, styles and dates overlap

2. National Center for History in the Schools, UCLA

3. Music Educators National Association

4. Student handouts may be down loaded from the web site, printed, and photocopied.

5. Any material from the web site may be down loaded, printed, and made into a transparency as the instructor sees fit.

6. IHJ = selection is found on Willie Hill's The Instrumental History of Jazz; Web = selection is found on the Monk Institute Jazz in America National Curriculum web site (www.jazzinamerica.org)

TOPICS: Bebop: 1940 - 19551

  1. Demise of big band swing
  2. Bebop (AKA "Bop"): Philosophy and Performance Practices
  3. Important Figures
  4. Cultural Implications

HISTORY STANDARDS
National Standards for United States History (Grades 9-12)2

Historical Thinking
Students should be able to:
  1. draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources. (Historical Comprehension Standard 2i)
  2. compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, andinstitutions (Historical Analysis and Interpretation Standard 3a)
  3. consider multiple perspectives (Historical Analysis and Interpretation Standard 3b)
  4. hypothesize the influence of the past (Historical Analysis and Interpretation Standard 3j)
  5. obtain historical data (Historical Research Capabilities Standard 4b)
Historical Content
Students should:
  1. understand social tensions and their consequences in the postwar era (The Emergence of Modern America Standard 3a), able to examine rising racial tensions, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, and the emergence of Garveyism
  2. understand how new cultural movements reflected and changed American society (The Emergence of Modern America Standard 3c), able to analyze how radio, movies, newspapers, and popular magazines created mass culture

ARTS STANDARDS
National Standards for Arts Education (Music Grades 9-12)3

Content Standard #6 - Listening to, Analyzing, and Describing Music
Students:
  1. analyze aural examples of a varied repertoire of music, representing diverse genres and cultures, by describing the uses of elements of music and expressive devices
  2. demonstrate extensive knowledge of the technical vocabulary of music
  3. identify and explain compositional devices and techniques used to provide unity and variety and tension and release in a musical work and give examples of other works that make similar uses of these devices and techniques
  4. demonstrate the ability to perceive and remember music events by describing in detail significant events occurring in a given aural example
  5. compare ways in which musical materials are used in a given example relative to ways in which they are used in other works of the same genre or style
  6. analyze and describe uses of the elements of music in a given work that make it unique, interesting, and expressive
Content Standard #9 - Understanding Music in Relation to History and Culture
Students:
  1. classify by genre or style and by historical period or culture unfamiliar but representative aural examples of music and explain the reasoning behind their classifications
  2. identify sources of American music genres, trace the evolution of those genres, and cite well-known musicians associated with them
  3. identify various roles that musicians perform, cite representative individuals who have functioned in each role, and describe their activities and achievements
  4. identify and explain the stylistic features of a given musical work that serve to define its aesthetic tradition and its historical or cultural context.
  5. identify and describe music genres or styles that show the influence of two or more cultural traditions, identify the cultural source of each influence, and trace the historical conditions that produced the synthesis of influences

SESSION OBJECTIVES:
The student will
  1. gain a fundamental understanding of Bebop
    1. transition from the Swing Era
    2. performance practices
  2. learn the basic definition of several terms associated with jazz
    1. range
    2. standard
    3. contrafact
    4. scat singing
  3. listen to Bebop recordings
  4. become acquainted with Charlie Parker and Billie Holiday
  5. participate in a class discussion regarding jazz's contribution to and reflection of American culture in the 1940s and early '50s

EQUIPMENT:
  1. CD player
  2. chalkboard (with chalk and eraser)
  3. overhead projector (optional)
  4. computer logged onto www.jazzinamerica.org (optional)

MATERIALS:
  1. The Instrumental History of Jazz
    1. two CDs
    2. accompanying booklet
  2. Student Handouts (one per student)4
    1. chapter glossary
    2. one American History (AH) handout: A Reaction to Racism in American Literature, Art, and Music
    3. Bebop Characteristics
    4. time line (Bebop era)
    5. Jazz Biographies (JB) handout (Charlie Parker and Billie Holiday)
  3. Overhead projector transparencies5

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:
The instructor will
  1. distribute student handouts
  2. have students read the student handout, A Reaction to Racism in American Literature, Art, and Music;lead a discussion on how the arts promotes awareness of critical social issues
  3. discuss the Bebop Era
  4. examine the biographical sketches of Charlie Parker and Billie Holiday
  5. play significant Bebop recordings
    1. Ko-Ko, Charlie Parker (IHJ) and/or A Night in Tunisia, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie (Web)6
    2. Shaw 'Nuff, Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker (IHJ) and/or Blue Monk, Thelonious Monk (Web)
    3. How High the Moon, Ella Fitzgerald (Web)
  6. play Strange Fruit, Billie Holiday (Web)
  7. lead a class discussion regarding jazz's contribution to and reflection of American culture during the Bebop Era

ASSESSMENT:
Test Bank
  1. Multiple Choice
  2. Fill in the Blank
  3. True-False
  4. Matching
  5. Essay

the thelonious monk institute of jazz
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