||Developments in Jazz
- Trumpeter Miles Davis records Sketches of Spain, which uses Flamenco music, and then tours Europe.
- The Modern Jazz Quartet records an album with orchestral accompaniment.
- Crowd disturbances disrupt the 7th Newport Jazz Festival.
- Saxophonist John Coltrane and trumpeter Don Cherry collaborate on the album Avant-Garde, influenced by saxophonist Ornette Coleman.
- John Coltrane records My Favorite Things, as well as Giant Steps.
- Drummer Max Roach records We Insist!: Freedom Now Suite. The album has an explicit civil rights message.
- Pianist Cecil Taylor and saxophonist Archie Shepp record The World of Cecil Taylor.
- Bassist Charles Mingus and saxophonist/clarinetist Eric Dolphy record What Love and Fables of Faubus, the latter written about the Arkansas governor who opposed desegregation.
- Drummer Shelly Manne opens the club "Shelly's Manne-Hole" in Los Angeles.
- Ornette Coleman records Free Jazz.
- Writer Albert Camus is killed in a car crash.
- John F. Kennedy is elected president of the U.S.
- The first laser beam is demonstrated.
- African-American students stage sit-ins in North Carolina.
- Drummer Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers tour Japan.
- Miles Davis records live at San Francisco's Black Hawk.
- Miles Davis and arranger Gil Evans appear at Carnegie Hall.
- Trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie appears at Carnegie Hall.
- Pianist Thelonious Monk tours Europe.
- Ornette Coleman's avant-garde quartet disbands.
- Down Beat magazine prints several articles attacking Ornette Coleman's music and the current (free jazz) music of John Coltrane and Eric Dolphy.
- The Newport Jazz Festival relocates to New York after rioting in its original location.
- Saxophonist Oliver Nelson records Blues and the Abstract Truth.
- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin is the first man in space.
- Writer Ernest Hemingway dies.
- The Berlin Wall is completed.
- The birth-control pill is introduced.
- Writer Joseph Heller's novel Catch-22 is published.
- Cuban exiles attempt to overthrow Cuban leader Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs invasion.
- John F. Kennedy is inaugerated, becoming the first Catholic President.
- Saxophonist Stan Getz and guitarist Charlie Byrd record Desafinado, which sparks renewed interest in bossa nova.
- Pianist Herbie Hancock records his first album as a leader, Takin' Off.
- Trumpeter Cootie Williams rejoins Duke Ellington's band. Ellington records an album with Charles Mingus and drummer Max Roach, and an album with John Coltrane.
- Carnegie Hall hosts a bossa nova concert.
- Guitarist Joe Pass makes his first album.
- Cecil Taylor records live in Copenhagen.
- Actress Marilyn Monroe dies.
- Writer William Faulkner dies.
- The Cuban Missile Crisis occurs.
- Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opens in New York City.
- The Beatles become a sensation with their first single Love Me Do.
- Charles Mingus records The Black Saint and The Sinner Lady, a landmark in extended structure and free improvisation.
- Bill Evans records Conversations with Myself, which uses overdubbing.
- Miles Davis performs and records with his new group with Herbie Hancock, saxophonist George Coleman, bassist Ron Carter, and 17-year-old drummer Tony Williams.
- Count Basie tours Japan.
- Trumpeter Lee Morgan records the best-selling The Sidewinder.
- Astrud Gilberto's Girl from Ipanema becomes a huge hit featuring Stan Getz.
- Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. addresses a rally in Washington, D.C.
- Twelve-year-old singer Stevie Wonder releases his first album.
- U.S. President John F. Kennedy is assassinated.
- Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president of U.S.
- Four black girls are killed in an Alabama church bombing.
- The Miles Davis Quintet records the classic live album My Funny Valentine, and soon after saxophonist Wayne Shorter replaces George Coleman.
- Clarinetist and flutist Eric Dolphy records Out To Lunch with trumpeter Freddie Hubbard and Tony Williams.
- Pianist Horace Silver records Song for My Father.
- John Coltrane records A Love Supreme, which sells hundreds of thousands of copies.
- Blind multi-instrumentalist Roland Kirk performs at the Newport in Europe festival.
- Avant-garde tenor saxophonist Albert Ayler records the album Ghosts.
- South African political activist Nelson Mandela begins his life sentence.
- Composer Cole Porter dies.
- Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick releases Dr. Strangelove.
- The Beatles appear in A Hard Day's Night and tour the U.S. for the first time.
- The U.S. Civil Rights Bill is passed.
- France and Britain agree to construct a Channel Tunnel connecting the two countries.
- The soldier doll G.I. Joe is introduced.
- Miles Davis records ESP with his new quintet.
- Pianist Nat King Cole dies of cancer.
- Herbie Hancock records Maiden Voyage, a classic modal tune, with the other members of Miles Davis' group plus trumpeter Freddie Hubbard.
- Trumpeter Thad Jones and drummer Mel Lewis form a rehearsal orchestra that is to last for years.
- John Coltrane records Ascension, a free jazz experiment influenced by Ornette Coleman.
- Writer T.S. Eliot dies.
- The U.S. intensifies its involvement in Vietnam.
- The first spacewalk occurs.
- Thirty-four people are killed in Los Angeles race riots.
- The film The Sound of Music receives an Oscar for Best Picture.
- Political activist Malcolm X is assassinated.
- Duke Ellington receives the President's Gold Medal of Honor.
- Thad Jones and Mel Lewis debut with their big band at the Village Vanguard in New York.
- Cecil Taylor records Unit Structures, which is an experimental album that resembles contemporary classical music.
- The Miles Davis Quintet records Miles Smiles, a historic work that explores structural freedom.
- Race riots break out in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago.
- Cultural Revolution occurs in China.
- Star Trek appears on TV.
- Barbara Jordan becomes the first African American woman to win a seat in the Texas Senate.
- Rise of the "Black Power" movement; Huey Newton and Bobby Seale form the Black Panthers Party.
- John Coltrane makes his last recordings and dies soon after of liver disease.
- The Miles Davis Quintet records Sorcerer and Nefertiti, featuring mostly compositions by Wayne Shorter.
- The Dave Brubeck Quarter disbands.
- Bandleader Paul Whiteman dies.
- The first Montreux Jazz Festival is held in Switzerland.
- Down Beat announces it will cover rock music as well as jazz.
- Trumpeter Lester Bowie forms the Art Ensemble of Chicago, an important avant-garde jazz group.
- Herbie Hancock introduces electric piano to popular jazz in Miles Davis' group.
- The first heart-transplant operation is performed.
- The Six-Day War occurs in the Middle East.
- The Apollo space crew is killed in a launchpad fire.
- Singer Aretha Franklin has four top-10 hits.
- President Lyndon Johnson orders a commission to report on rising racial violence.
- Vibraphonist Gary Burton appears at Carnegie Hall.
- Herbie Hancock records the album Speak Like a Child with trumpeter Thad Jones and bassist Ron Carter.
- Herbie Hancock quits the Miles Davis Quartet.
- Guitarist Wes Montgomery, whose album A Day in the Life is the best selling jazz album of the year, dies.
- Pianist Chick Corea and bassist Dave Holland join Miles Davis' band.
- Avant-garde saxophonist Anthony Braxton, a member of the Chicago Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, records For Alto Saxophone and Three Compositions of New Jazz.
- Composer Carla Bley's Jazz Composers Orchestra Association forms the New Music Distribution Service to disseminate its recordings.
- Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated.
- Students protest in Paris.
- The U.S.S.R. invades Czechoslovakia.
- Presidential candidate Robert Kennedy is assassinated.
- Massive antiwar protests are staged in the U.S.
- Rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix soars up the charts with two albums.
- Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey is released.
- Composer Gunther Schuller completes his book Early Jazz, the first critical study of the origins of the music.
- Bassist Paul Chambers dies from tuberculosis.
- Miles Davis records In a Silent Way. Later in the year, Davis records Bitches Brew, the first important fusion album.
- Tony Williams forms the group Lifetime with guitarist John McLaughlin and organist Larry Young.
- The Art Ensemble of Chicago records in Paris.
- Coleman Hawkins dies of pneumonia.
- Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to land on the moon.
- Colonel Muammar Gaddafi seizes power in Libya.
- Golda Meir becomes Premier of Israel.
- The Woodstock pop music festival is held in New York.
- Writer Mario Puzo's The Godfather is published.
- The lottery system is established for the U.S. draft.
- Richard M. Nixon becomes president.